GlucoBalance

Biotics Research – GlucoBalance 180c

A multi-vitamin for those with blood-sugar handling issues (hyper/hypo-glycemia)

  • Formulated for Biotics Research by Jonathan V. Wright, M.D. and Alan R. Gaby, M.D., leaders in the field of nutritional science.
  • Wide clinical use in the U.S.A. 1000 mcg chromium (as aspartate). Chromium is essential for glucose metabolism.
  • Contains both Niacin, a vital component of GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor) and Niacinamide, necessary for producing NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) in insulin secreting pancreatic B cells.
  • Formulated with a uniquely high amount of biotin – 3000 mcg. Biotin is essential for glucose phosphorylation by hepatic glucokinase, the first step in glucose utilization

Effective regulation of blood glucose has important implications for health. Even mild disruptions of glucose homeostasis can have adverse consequences. Chronic diabetes may result in cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, blindness, or renal failure. Hypoglycemia (also called reactive hypoglycemia or dysinsulinism), though not general associated with the organ damage seen in diabetes, can be responsible for a number of troublesome physical and psychological symptoms.

  • The human body possesses a complex set of checks and balances to maintain blood glucose concentrations within a narrow range. Blood sugar control is influenced by the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as by the pancreas, liver, kidney, and even skeletal muscle.
  • Glucose homeostasis also depends on the presence of a wide range of micronutrients. In the typical American diet, high in refined and processed foods, many of these micronutrients are in short supply. In addition, some individuals with blood sugar disorders may have a special dietary need for higher amounts of one or more micronutrients.

RECOMMENDATION: Two (2) capsules, three (3) times per day.

Warning: If you are taking diabetes medication, do not use GlucoBalance without professional supervision.

Function & Contents

  • Vitamin A (as retinyl acetate) 5000 IU 100%
  • Vitamin C (as calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid) 500 mg 833%
  • Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) 100 IU 25%
  • Thiamin (B1) (as thiamin mononitrate) 50 mg 3333%
  • Vitamin (B2) (as riboflavin) 25 mg 1470%
  • Niacin (as niacinamide and niacin) 150 mg 750%
  • Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride) 30 mg 1500%
  • Folic Acid 800 mcg 200%
  • Vitamin B12 (as cobalamin) 50 mcg 833%
  • Biotin 3000 mcg 1000%
  • Pantothenic Acid (as calcium pantothenate) 100 mg 1000%
  • Calcium (as ascorbate, citrate and carbonate) 200 mg 20%
  • Magnesium (as aspartate, citrate and oxide) 400 mg 100%
  • Zinc (as zinc picolinate and zinc citrate) 30 mg 200%
  • Selenium (as selenomethionine) 150 mcg 214%
  • Copper (as copper gluconate) 2 mg 100%
  • Manganese (as manganese aspartate) 20 mg 1000%
  • Chromium (as chromium aspartate) 1000 mcg 833%
  • Potassium (as potassium aspartate) 99 mg 3%
  • Vanadium (as vanadium aspartate) 20 mcg *

These statements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. This product is not claimed to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Research & Additional Information

The following nutrients are particularly important when considering blood sugar disorders:

Chromium
The effect of chromium on glucose metabolism apparently requires its conversion to glucose tolerance factor (GTF), a low-molecular-weight compound that contains chromium, niacin (nicotinic acid), glycine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. GTF, has been shown to potentiate the action of insulin at the cellular level. (1,4)

Tissue chromium levels were found to decline with age in Americans. (2) In other studies, including one by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, more than 50% of people consumed less than the lower level of chromium recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, Nutritional Research Council. (3, 37) Chromium aspartate is a well-utilized form of supplemental chromium being solubilized at a wide range of ph. The amounts of chromium used in most clinical trials (*150 to 200 ug/day) are apparently inadequate for some patients, even when more efficient Chromium compounds are used. Larger amounts of chromium, such as 500 to 1,000 ug/day, have often had a greater benefit. (4)

Niacin and Niacinamide
As a component of glucose tolerance factor, niacin plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Many refined foods consumed by Americans are depleted of niacin. Grains and other foods that are “enriched” usually contain added niacinamide, which apparently cannot be converted by the human body into niacin. In addition, many vitamin supplements contain niacinamide, rather than niacin. Although niacinamide is capable of performing most of the functions of vitamin B3, a small amount of niacin seems to be necessary for the synthesis of GTF. (5) Both niacin and niacinamide may also be important for blood sugar control through a mechanism unrelated to GTF. As precursors to NAD, which is an important metabolite concerned with intracellular energy production, niacin and niacinamide may prevent the depletion of NAD in pancreatic B cells.

Biotin
The initial step in glucose utilization by the cell is its phosphorylation, mediated by the biotin-dependent enzyme hepatic glucokinase. Thus adequate biotin intake is required to initiate intracellular glucose into the cell. (6)

Biotin may also play a role in stabilizing blood sugar levels through biotin-dependent enzymes acetyl Co A carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. (37) Thus biotin deficiency should be avoided in those with blood sugar disorders.

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Serum vitamin B6 levels were below normal in 25% of 518 diabetics. (7) Particularly where peripheral neuropathy is present, the inadequate B6 intake should be contemplated.(8)

Copper
Because the typical American diet contains only about half of the RDA (2 mg/day) for copper (9,36), deficiency of this mineral may be common. Copper is involved with insulin binding, and copper deficiency in mammals may be reflected in increased glucosylated hemoglobin, indicative of chronically raised blood sugar levels. (10)

Magnesium
The American diet is often low in magnesium. Dietary surveys have
shown that 80-85% of American women consume less than the RDA for the mineral. (11) Daily magnesium intake in two other studies was only about two-thirds of the RDA. (12,13,36) This may be particularly relevant in diabetics, where magnesium deficiency is thought to play a role in the development of insulin resistance. (14) Serum magnesium has been found to be significantly lower in many diabetics (15), therefore, it is reasonable to make sure that diabetics have adequate dietary intake of magnesium. Low magnesium levels may also be associated with hypoglycemia. (16)

Zinc
Zinc is involved both with insulin synthesis by pancreatic B cells (17) and insulin binding to liver and adipose tissue cells. (18,19) People with zinc deficiency may have significantly higher glucose levels and lower insulin levels than similar patients without zinc deficiency. (20)

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Ascorbic acid levels may be lower in diabetics than controls (22) and patients with inadequate ascorbic acid levels may be found to have abnormal blood sugar curves. (23) In addition, ascorbic acid may compete with glucose for transport across cell membranes, (24) so that in hyperglycemia, ascorbic acid transport into the cell may be inhibited. (25)

Ascorbic acid deficiency may allow sorbitol to accumulate in erythrocytes, which may pre-dispose diabetics to certain types of end-organ damage. (26) Care should be taken to ensure that those with blood sugar abnormalities have adequate ascorbic acid intake.

Manganese
Manganese is a cofactor for certain enzymes involved in the inter-mediary metabolism of carbohydrates. In addition, the concentration of manganese in the pancreas is approximately ten times higher than in other organs. (27)

The optimal intake of manganese is not known but at least half of the manganese is lost when whole grains are replaced by refined flour. (29) The American diet may be low in manganese. (36)

B12 and Folate
Both B12 and folate are involved in a number of different steps in carbohydrate metabolism and the incidence of B12 deficiency was significantly greater in a series of diabetics than in the general population. (30) Folate is involved with gluconeogenesis as a cofactor with key enzymes in the liver and small intestine. (31) Deficiency of either B12 or folate is to be avoided in those with blood sugar abnormalities.

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Central to carbohydrate metabolism and Krebs Cycle function is adequate thiamin levels, and diabetics are more often deficient in thiamin. (32) Care should be taken to ensure that thiamin intake is adequate in those with diabetes and hypoglycemia.

Carnitine
Carnitine is involved as part of a vital transport mechanism of fat metabolism in which fat enters energy production pathway. Carnitine supplementation may be considered in those with blood sugar abnormalities.

Vanadium
Vanadate is an oxidized form of vanadium. Due to possible insulinotropic effects of vanadate (33), inadequate amounts of this trace mineral is undesirable in those with blood sugar abnormalities.

Vitamin E and Selenium
Vitamin E and selenium are essential nutritional factors which act as antioxidants and may be involved in glucose balance. (34, 35) As many complications associated with diabetes may be related to excess free radical activity, prudence demands that adequate selenium and vitamin E be supplied in the diabetic diet.

References:

  • Toepfer EW, Mertz W. Polansky MM, Roginski EE, Wolf WR. Preparation of chromium-containing material of glucose tolerance factor activity from brewer’s yeast extracts and by synthesis. J Agric Food Chem 1977;25:162-166.
  • Schroeder HA, Nason AP, Tipton IH. Chromium deficiency as a factor in atherosclerosis. J Chronic Dis 1970;23:123-142.
  • Anderson RA, Kozlovsky AS. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutri 1985;41:1177-1183.
  • Glinsmann WH, Mertz W. Effect of trivalent chromium on glucose tolerance. Metabolism 1966;15:510-502.
  • Urberg, M. Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-899.
  • Anonymous. Biotin and glucokinase in the diabetic rat. Nutr. Rev 1970;28:242-244.
  • Davis RE, Calder JS, Curnow DH. Serum pyridoxal and folate concentrations in diabetics. Pathology 1976;8:151-156.
  • Jone CL, Gonzalex V. Pyridoxine deficiency: a new factor in diabetic neuropathy. J. Am Podiatry Assoc 1978;68:646-653.
  • Wolf WR, Holden J, Greene FE. Daily intake of zinc and copper from self selected diets. Fed Proc 1977;36:1175.
  • Klevay LM, Canfiedl WK, Gallagher SK, Henrickson LK, Bolonchuk W, et al. Diminished glucose tolerance in two men due to a diet low in ic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-899.
  • Morgan KJ, Stampley GL, Zabik ME, Fischer DR. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the Ul.S. population. J Am Coll Nutr 1985;4:195-206.
  • Lakshmanan FL, Rao RB, Kim WW, Kelsay JL. Magnesium intakes, balances and blood levels of adults consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutri 1984;40:1380-1389.
  • Srivastava US, Nadeau MH, Gueneau L. Mineral intakes of university students; magnesium content. Nutr Rep Int 1978;18:235-242.
  • Yajnik CS, Smith RF, Hockaday TDR, Ward NI. Fasting plasma magnesium concentrations and glucose disposal in diabetes. Br Med J 1984;288:1027-1028.
  • Ceriello A, Guigliano D, Dello Russo P, Passariello N. Hypomagnesemia in relation to diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 1982;5:558-559.

Additional References:

  • A scientific review: the role of chromium in insulin resistance. Diabetes Educ. 2004;Suppl:2-14.
  • Cheng HH, Lai MH, Hou WC, Huang CL.J Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 10;52(5):1385-9
  • Fox CH, Ramsoomair D, Mahoney MC, Carter C, Young B, Graham R. An investigation of hypomagnesemia among ambulatory urban African Americans. J Fam Pract. 1999 Aug;48(8):636-9
  • Shamberger RJ. Calcium, magnesium, and other elements in the red blood cells and hair of normals and patients with premenstrual syndrome. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Aug;94(2):123-9
  • Iketani T, Kiriike N, Murray, Stein B, Nagao K, Nagata T, Minamikawa N, Shidao A, Fukuhara H. Effect of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) treatment on bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2003 Mar 25;117(3):259-69
  • McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Tucker KL, Samelson EJ, Broe KE, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 13;350(20):2042-9
  • Eisinger J, Clairet D. Effects of silicon, fluoride, etidronate and magnesium on bone mineral density: a retrospective study. Magnes Res. 1993 Sep;6(3):247-9
  • JSchiano A, Eisinger F, Detolle P, Laponche AM, Brisou B, Eisinger J. [Silicon, bone tissue and immunity] [Article in French] Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. 1979 Jul-Sep;46(7-9):483-6
  • Schaafsma A, de Vries PJ, Saris WH. Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):225-49
  • Volpe SL, Taper LJ, Meacham S. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review. Magnes Res. 1993 Sep;6(3):291-6
  • Nielsen FH. Studies on the relationship between boron and magnesium which possibly affects the formation and maintenance of bones. Magnes Trace Elem. 1990;9(2):61-9
  • Fletcher RH, Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. JAMA. 2002 Jun 19; 287(23): 3127-9
  • Ames BN, Elson-Schwab I, Silver EA. High-dose vitamin therapy stimulates variant enzymes with decreased coenzyme binding affinity (increased K(m)): relevance to genetic disease and polymorphisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Apr;75(4):616-58 FULL-TEXT

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